(1)The phrase“...” in the sentence could be replaced by “________”．
(2)The underlined word “...” in paragraph...refers to ________．
(3)What is the meaning of the underlined word in the...paragraph？/What does the underlined word mean in the...paragraph?
(4)Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the phrase “...”？
(5)The underlined word “...” most probably means “________”．
(6)The underlined sentence in the second paragraph implies that ________．
[典例] (2018·北京卷·D片段)A study from the University of California at Davis suggested that replacing petrol-powered private cars worldwide with electric, self-driving and shared systems could reduce carbon emissions from transportation 80% and cut the cost of transportation infrastructure(基礎設施) and operations 40% by 2050. Fewer emissions and cheaper travel sound pretty appealing. The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly be fielded by ride-hailing services, considering the cost of self-driving technology as well as liability and maintenance issues(責任與維護問題). But driverless car ownership could increase as the prices drop and more people become comfortable with the technology.
49．What does the underlined word “fielded” in Paragraph 4 probably mean?
[解析] A 詞義猜測題。利用構詞法解題。field常用作名詞， 表示“場地，領域”，此處用作動詞，引申為“使用，應用”。根據上段中畫線詞所在句的前半部分內容“The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly”并結合下句中的“as the prices drop and more people become comfortable with the technology”可知，隨著價格的降低以及人們對這項技術開始應用自如，第一批上市的無人駕駛車輛會“被應用”到“叫車服務”中。故選A。
[典例] (2017·全國卷Ⅱ·A片段)By translating the rich and humorous text of Love’s Labour’s Lost into the physical language of BSL, Deafinitely Theatre creates a new interpretation of Shakespeare’s comedy and aims to build a bridge between deaf and hearing worlds by performing to both groups as one audience.
[點撥] 根據上文中的“By translating the rich and humorous text of Love’s Labour’s Lost into the physical language of BSL”中的translating可知，interpretation與translating同義，意為：翻譯。
有時作者會用表示對比或轉折的信號詞連接意思相反的兩個詞或句子，這時就可根據反義詞線索猜測詞義。表示對比或反義的信號詞/詞組常見的有：(whether)．..or，unlike，but，yet，however，while，although，nevertheless，instead，rather than，in contrast，on the contrary，on the other hand等。
[典例] (福建卷·E片段)If you’re tired of wandering around the gym wasting time and becoming bored，you can attend an upbeat group fitness class that’ll keep your workout on track.
73．The underlined word “upbeat” in the second paragraph probably means “________”．
[解析] A 詞義猜測題。根據上文語境可知，upbeat應與上文中的“tired of”意義相反，可猜測為“快樂的，樂觀的”，故選A。
[典例] (2019·北京卷·D片段)Phytoplankton live at the ocean surface, where they pull carbon dioxide(二氧化碳) into the ocean while giving off oxygen. When these organisms die, they bury carbon in the deep ocean, an important process that helps to regulate the global climate. But phytoplankton are vulnerable to the ocean’s warming trend. Warming changes key characteristics of the ocean and can affect phytoplankton growth, since they need not only sunlight and carbon dioxide to grow, but also nutrients.
43．What does the underlined word “vulnerable” in Paragraph 3 probably mean?
[解析] A 詞義猜測題。根據上段尾句“Warming changes key characteristics of the ocean and can affect phytoplankton growth...but also nutrients.”可知，溫度變化對phytoplankton有很大的影響；由此可推知phytoplankton對海洋的溫度很敏感。故選A。
為了說明或證實，文章中經常會舉例，往往用來列舉說明前面較難理解的詞，這些例子可以幫助考生猜測生詞。舉例時，常常會用一些連接性的詞，如such as，like, for example, for instance等。
[典例] (2018·全國卷Ⅰ·C片段)In recent centuries, trade, industrialisation, the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over.
29．Which of the following best explains “dominant” underlined in paragraph 2?
[解析] C 詞義猜測題。根據“dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over”可知，英語、西班牙語和漢語正在替代其他語言。由此推知，dominant languages意為“強有力的語言”。故選C。
同等關系是指一個詞、一個詞組或短語在句中作同一成分，而且他們的詞義屬于同一范疇。只要認出其中一個或幾個詞或短語，即可以確定同等關系中生詞的詞性、作用和大概的意思。常見的表示同等關系的信號詞有：or，namely, that is, in other words, that is to say, to be more exact, to put in another way等。
[典例] (2018·全國卷Ⅱ·B片段)If you have a_juicer,_you can simply feed in frozen bananas and some berries or sliced fruit. Out comes a “softserve” creamy dessert, to be eaten right away. This makes a fun activity for a children’s party; they love feeding the fruit and frozen bananas into the top of the machine and watching the ice cream come out below.
26．What is “a juicer” in the last paragraph?
A．A dessert. B．A drink.
C．A container. D．A machine.
[解析] D 本段對juicer的功能做了描述，從其中的“you can simply feed in frozen bananas and some berries or sliced fruit. Out comes a ‘softserve’ creamy dessert...”這些字眼可以看出juicer是一種機器，是一種將冷凍的香蕉、漿果等制成果汁的機器，此外，最后一句中的“they love feeding the fruit and frozen bananas into the top of the machine and watching the ice cream come out below”明確指出畫線詞指的是一種機器(榨汁機)。故選D。
[典例] (2019·全國卷Ⅰ·B片段)But he’s nervous. “I’m here to tell you today why you should...should...” Chris trips on the “-ld，” a pronunciation difficulty for many non-native English speakers. His teacher, Thomas Whaley, is next to him, whispering support. “...Vote for...me...” Except for some stumbles,_Chris is doing amazingly well. When he brings his speech to a nice conclusion, Whaley invites the rest of the class to praise him.
25．What does the underlined word “stumbles” in paragraph 2 refer to?
A．Improper pauses. B．Bad manners.
C．Spelling mistakes. D．Silly jokes.
[解析] A 詞義猜測題。根據文章內容可知，老師借助競選演說鼓勵同學們學會贊美自己。文中Chris Palaez的母語不是英語，他學英語才三年多，說話不流利，而且他在演講時非常緊張，所以說話磕磕絆絆，故選A。
此類題目要求考生根據語境判斷代詞(this, that, it, they, them, one, which等)究竟指代什么。
[典例] (2017·全國卷Ⅰ·C片段)Despite the celebrations, though, in the U．S. the jazz audience continues to shrink and grow older, and the music has failed to connect with younger generations.
It’s Jason Moran’s job to help change that. As the Kennedy Center’s artistic adviser for jazz, Moran hopes to widen the audience for jazz, make the music more accessible, and preserve its history and culture.
29．What does the underlined word “that” in paragraph 3 refer to?
A．Jazz becoming more accessible.
B．The production of jazz growing faster.
C．Jazz being less popular with the young.
D．The jazz audience becoming larger.
1．返回原文，找出指代詞(it, they, them, this等)。
[典例] (2019·浙江卷6月·B片段)Money_with_no_strings_attached. It’s not something you see every day. But at Union Station in Los Angeles last month, a board went up with dollar bills attached to it with pins and a sign that read, “Give What You Can, Take What You Need.”
24．What does the expression “money with no strings attached” in paragraph 1 mean?
A．Money spent without hesitation.
B．Money not legally made.
C．Money offered without conditions.
D．Money not tied together.
(2019·江蘇卷·B)In the 1960s，while studying the volcanic history of Yellowstone National Park，Bob Christiansen became puzzled about something that，oddly，had not troubled anyone before：he couldn’t find the park’s volcano. It had been known for a long time that Yellowstone was volcanic in nature—that’s what accounted for all its hot springs and other steamy features. But Christiansen couldn’t find the Yellowstone volcano anywhere.
Most of us, when we talk about volcanoes, think of the classic cone(圓錐體) shapes of a Fuji or Kilimanjaro, which are created when erupting magma(巖漿) piles up. These can form remarkably quickly. In 1943, a Mexican farmer was surprised to see smoke rising from a small part of his land. In one week he was the confused owner of a cone five hundred feet high. Within two years it had topped out at almost fourteen hundred feet and was more than half a mile across. Altogether there are some ten thousand of these volcanoes on Earth，all but a few hundred of them extinct. There is, however, a second less known type of volcano that doesn’t involve mountain building. These are volcanoes so explosive that they burst open in a single big crack, leaving behind a vast hole, the caldera. Yellowstone obviously was of this second type, but Christiansen couldn’t find the caldera anywhere.
Just at this time NASA decided to test some new high-altitude cameras by taking photographs of Yellowstone. A thoughtful official passed on some of the copies to the park authorities on the assumption that they might make a nice blow-up for one of the visitors’ centers. As soon as Christiansen saw the photos，he realized why he had failed to spot the caldera: almost the whole park—2.2 million acres—was caldera. The explosion had left a hole more than forty miles across—much too huge to be seen from anywhere at ground level. At some time in the past Yellowstone must have blown up with a violence far beyond the scale of anything known to humans.
【解題導語】 本文是一篇說明文。20世紀60年代，Bob Christiansen在研究黃石國家公園的火山歷史時，對一件以前從未困擾過任何人的事情感到困惑：他找不到公園里的火山。
58．What puzzled Christiansen when he was studying Yellowstone?
A．Its complicated geographical features.
B．Its ever-lasting influence on tourism.
C．The mysterious history of the park.
D．The exact location of the volcano.
D 解析：細節理解題。根據第一段中的“Bob Christiansen became puzzled about something that, oddly, had not troubled anyone before: he couldn’t find the park’s volcano”可知，Bob Christiansen對黃石國家公園的火山位置感到困惑。
59．What does the second paragraph mainly talk about?
A．The shapes of volcanoes.
B．The impacts of volcanoes.
C．The activities of volcanoes.
D．The heights of volcanoes.
A 解析：段落大意題。根據第二段內容尤其是其中的“Most of us, when we talk about volcanoes, think of the classic cone(圓錐體) shapes of Fuji or Kilimanjaro”和“a second less known type of volcano that doesn’t involve mountain building...a vast hole”可知，該段主要講兩類火山的形狀。
60．What does the underlined word “blow-up” in the last paragraph most probably mean?
A．Hot-air balloon. B．Digital camera.
C．Big photograph. D．Bird’s view.
C 解析：詞義猜測題。根據畫線詞前的“NASA decided to...by taking paragraphs of Yellowstone”和本段中的“As soon as Christiansen saw the photos, he realized why he had failed to spot the caldera: almost the whole park—2.2 million acres—was caldera.”可知，NASA拍攝了黃石國家公園的照片，Christiansen在照片上看到公園的全景。由此可推知，blow-up意為“放大的照片”。
(2019·無錫教學質量抽測)When she first started learning about the climate change from one of her elders, Fawn Sharp was invited on a helicopter flight over the Olympic Mountains to survey the Mount Anderson glacier. But the glacier was gone, melted by the warming climate. Sharp had a deep sense of loss when she discovered the glacier wasn’t there any more.
Loss is a growing issue for people working and living on the front lines of climate change. And that gave Jennifer Wren Atkinson, a full-time lecturer at the University of Washington Bothell, US, an idea for a class.
This term, she taught students on the Bothell campus about the emotional burdens of environmental study. She used the experiences of Native American tribes, scientists and activists, and asked her 24 students to face the reality that there is no easy fix—that “this is such an intractable problem that they’re going to be dealing with it for the rest of their lives.”
Student Cody Dillon used to be a climate science skeptic(懷疑論者). Then he did his own reading and research, and changed his mind.
Dillon wasn’t going into environmental work—he was a computer-science major. Yet, the potential for a worldwide environmental catastrophe seemed so real to him five years ago that he quit his job and became a full-time volunteer for an environmental group that worked on restoration projects.
Six months into the work, he decided that Atkinson’s class was just what he was looking for—a place where he could discuss his concerns about a changing climate.
Atkinson said she hoped the class helped her students prepare themselves for the amount of environmental loss that will happen over their lifetimes.
“We are already changing the planet—so many species are going to be lost, displaced or massively impacted，” she said. “The future isn’t going to be what they imagined.”
【解題導語】 本文是一篇新聞報道。文章主要報道了Jennifer Wren Atkinson給同學們上環境研究的情感負擔課，意在通過這類課程告訴學生氣候變化日益嚴峻，沒人能夠獨善其身，因此要更加關注環境問題。
1．Why did the author mention the case of Fawn Sharp?
A．To lay a basis for Fawn Sharp’s further research.
B．To prove Fawn Sharp’s work is similar to Atkinson’s.
C．To lead into the issue of loss caused by climate change.
D．To show scientists’ concern about the Mount Anderson glacier.
C 解析：推理判斷題。根據第一段內容可知，Fawn Sharp被邀請乘坐直升機飛越奧林匹克山脈，調查Mount Anderson冰川。但是因氣候變暖，冰川融化消失了，當Fawn Sharp 發現冰川已經不在那里時，她有一種深深的失落感。由此可推知，作者通過Fawn Sharp發現冰山消失以及她的感受來引入“氣候變化導致環境損失”的主題。故選C。
2．What’s the main purpose of Atkinson’s class?
A．To explore how different people deal with climate change.
B．To get students more concerned about environmental issue.
C．To find solutions to the Olympic Mountains environmental issue.
D．To teach students how to conduct a research about environment.
B 解析：細節理解題。根據倒數第二段Atkinson said she hoped the class helped her students prepare themselves for the amount of environmental loss that will happen over their lifetimes.可知，Atkinson的課的主要目的是讓學生更加關注環境問題。故選B。
3．Which of the following best explains the underlined word “intractable” in paragraph 3?
B 解析：詞義猜測題。根據本句中的“and asked her 24 students to face the reality that there is no easy fix”可知，Atkinson讓她的24名學生面對這樣一個現實：沒有簡單的解決辦法；再根據破折號可知，此處表示這是一個如此棘手的問題，他們將在余生中處理它。由此可推知，intractable意為“困難的”，與difficult意義相近。故選B。
4．How did Atkinson’s class influence Dillon?
A．Dillon worked as a part-time volunteer for restoration projects.
B．It made him realize a planet-wide climate disaster would happen.
C．It encouraged him to be more involved in environmental protection.
D．It discouraged him to work on restoration projects for the environment.
C 解析：推理判斷題。根據第五段第二句“Yet, the potential for a worldwide environmental catastrophe seemed so real to him five years ago that he quit his job and became a full-time volunteer for an environmental group that worked on restoration projects.”可知，五年前，Dillon認為世界環境災難的可能性是如此真實，以至于他辭去了工作，成了一名致力于修復項目的環保組織的全職志愿者；又根據第六段“Six months into the work, he decided that Atkinson’s class was just what he was looking for—a place where he could discuss his concerns about a changing climate.”可知，工作六個月后，他認為Atkinson的課正是他想要的——一個他可以討論他對不斷變化的氣候的擔憂的地方。由此可推知，Atkinson的課鼓勵了Dillon更多地參與環境保護。故選C。
[長難句分析] Yet，the potential for a worldwide environmental catastrophe seemed so real to him five years ago that he quit his job and became a full-time volunteer for an environmental group that worked on restoration projects.(第五段第二句)
分析：本句是一個復合句。so...(第一個)that...引導結果狀語從句；第二個that引導定語從句，修飾先行詞an environmental group。
(2019·南京四校聯考)Have you ever caught yourself saying “I hate small talk！” the minute you walk into a party? If so, you might be an introvert(內向的人). Introverts hate to chat about “small” subjects with people. They are fine when you talk one-on-one but seem to get lost in the crowd when there’s a group around.
If you’re talking to an introvert, you might find that your first few conversations go one of two ways. Either they’ll seem to get bored and not say much or they’ll seem to skate over small talk in favor of more in-depth topics. What you need to know is that the introvert are not being rude. It’s just that they don’t like small talk. Here’s why.
Small talk serves as a gateway toward deeper conversations. Some introverts don’t realize that small talk will actually help them get to the bigger topics. You don’t need to stay on small talk forever. However, sometimes introverts feel that even the short amount of time it takes to get into the real conversation is a waste of time. Small talk is very fast. Someone says something and this should be followed up with a quick response. But introverts like to chew on their words before saying them aloud. Before they answer, they’ll mull_over different thoughts.
Small talk in its very nature invites more people to join in. The more people who join in the conversation, the more the introvert will tend to step back. As a result, they’ll be quiet.
Small talk is about throwing out subjects in the hope that one or more of them can be turned into a common point of interest.
The listening involved with small talk is not in-depth. The purpose is about listening “lightly” so you can figure out the right topics to spend some time on. Introverts tend to be great listeners, but they use active listening rather than light listening. This makes them wonderful friends, but can also make it difficult for new people to understand why they’re so quiet.
5．How do introverts respond to a chat?
A．They try to avoid it.
B．They get excited about it.
C．They give it their full attention.
D．They focus on unimportant topics.
A 解析：細節理解題。根據第二段中的“Either they’ll seem to get bored and not say much or they’ll seem to skate over small talk in favor of more in-depth topics.”可知，性格內向者要么很厭煩不想多說，要么避免閑談。故選A項。
6．What do we know about small talk?
A．It goes slowly.
B．It costs people a lot of time.
C．It contributes to deeper topics.
D．It provides much useful information.
C 解析：細節理解題。根據第三段中的“Small talk serves as a gateway toward deeper conversations. Some introverts don’t realize that small talk will actually help them get to the bigger topics.”可知，閑聊有助于引出更深層次的話題。故選C項。
7．What does the underlined phrase “mull over” in paragraph 3 probably mean?
A．Give up. B．Think over.
C．Write down. D．Forget about.
B 解析：詞義猜測題。根據第三段中的“But introverts like to chew on their words before saying them aloud.”可知，內向的人喜歡在說話前仔細斟酌，也就是說，他們回答前會仔細考慮不同的想法。think over意為“認真考慮”，符合語境。give up意為“放棄”；write down意為“寫下；記下”；forget about意為“忘記”。故選B項。
8．How can we become a good talker in small conversations?
A．Figure out the deep meaning of questions.
B．Think twice before answering questions.
C．Try to find shared topics.
D．Be a quiet listener.
C 解析：推理判斷題。根據倒數第二段“Small talk is about throwing out subjects in the hope that one or more of them can be turned into a common point of interest.”可知，想要成為一個健談的人，需要找到共同的話題。故選C項。
[長難句分析] However, sometimes introverts feel that even the short amount of time it takes to get into the real conversation is a waste of time.(第三段第四句)
分析：本句是一個主從復合句，句子主語為introverts, feel是謂語，that引導賓語從句作feel的賓語；賓語從句中，the short amount of time is a waste of time 是句子主干， it takes to get into the real conversation是定語從句，修飾限定先行詞the short amount of time, 從句中省略了引導詞。
(2019·常州學業水平監測)The pumpkin(南瓜) theme is everywhere at Butler’s Orchard in Germantown, Maryland. It has thousands of pumpkins, including a pumpkin patch where people can pick their own pumpkin. There are also other things to do, like riding a pony, rushing down a slide or walking around a corn maze with its confusing winding pathways. Some children discover the big orange fruits way more than they think. Visitors can pick their own in season fruits, vegetables and flowers. Butler’s Orchard opened more than sixty years ago, as one of the first pick your own farms in the area.
Ken Merriam brought his children. He says Butler’s Orchard brings back good memories of growing up on a farm in Honduras.“It’s a little bit of what I used to have as a kid, so that’s why I think it’s nice to bring them over here. Get them out of the city.” Shirley Butler’s grandchildren who are in their 30s are now the third generation to run the farm. General manager Tyler Butler says children who usually only see pumpkins in grocery stores can learn how pumpkins are grown.
“I didn’t know pumpkins came from a vine. There are flowers on this vine. There are roots.”These little girls are learning about pumpkins during their first trip to a pumpkin patch to feel the nature and the fruits. For Tristan Piazza’s mother, the Fall Festival is an annual event. “My parents have always brought me. I bring my kid now. I hope he stays in the area and he can bring his kids.” Since family funds are hard to keep_afloat these days, Tyler Butler appreciates the tens of thousands of visitors who come to the Fall Festival each year.
1．At Butler’s Orchard, visitors can experience ________.
A．picking vegetables in person
B．growing vegetables by themselves
C．tasting fruits off season
D．selling pumpkins online
A 解析：細節理解題。根據第一段倒數第二句“Visitors can pick their own in season fruits, vegetables and flowers.”可知，游客可以在Butler果園里親自采摘當令的水果、蔬菜和鮮花。故選A項。
2．Why did Ken Merriam take his children to the farm?
A．They want to run it.
B．They want to grow vegetables.
C．It reminds him of his childhood.
D．It provides them with fun activities.
C 解析：細節理解題。根據第二段第二句“He says Butler’s Orchard brings back good memories of growing up on a farm in Honduras.”可知，他帶孩子來這里是因為這里讓他想起了他的童年。故選C項。
3．Which of the following best explains “keep afloat”underlined in the last paragraph?
4．What’s the main idea of the passage?
A．The Fall Festival is an annual event.
B．Pumpkins at Butler’s Orchard are organic.
C．Pick your own farms are increasingly popular.
D．Butler’s Orchard strengthens the bond of the family.
[長難句分析] It has thousands of pumpkins, including a pumpkin patch where people can pick their own pumpkin.(第一段第二句)
分析：本句是一個主從復合句。主句是It has thousands of pumpkins, 后面的動名詞短語作狀語，狀語中含有where 引導的定語從句，修飾先行詞a pumpkin patch, where在從句中作地點狀語。
When I was a kid, I was the girl who kept the training wheels on my bike as long as possible. Even my younger sister had got rid of them much earlier than me. But as I began to grow older, this changed.
All this happened on the Bike Safety Day. It is supposed to be a fun day at school when all of us kids bring our bikes to school and the school provides us with the opportunity to ride outside and learn proper bike safety. Sounds like fun, right? No. In fact, it caused me to panic. What was I going to say when my friends asked me about my training wheels?
With the pressure of everyone seeing my training wheels, I determined to let them go. This was the first big change I’d ever made on my own.
I went to my parents and told them all about my dilemma. They were more than happy to help. We went outside and got my bike. Instead of running away and hiding behind, I stood in front of my bike and took great pride in my decision as my dad removed the training wheels.
I got on and steadied myself. My heart raced but my feet and hands were calm. My dad started to push before my feet even moved and suddenly I was off. The fear faded away and a relaxed mind came into its place. It was crazy to think how quickly I learned something that took so long for me to even try!
My confidence soared(高漲). This was going to be the start of a brand new world for me. My accomplishment would carry me forth to new goals and wins. I realized that if I set my mind on doing something, I could achieve it.
5．What does the school expect the students to do on Bike Safety Day?
A．Have their bikes checked.
B．Ride outside for fun.
C．Acquire bike safety skills.
D．Remove the training wheels.
C 解析：細節理解題。根據第二段中的“the school provides us with the opportunity to ride outside and learn proper bike safety”可知，學校想讓學生在“自行車安全日”學會一些自行車安全技能，故選C項。
6．What does the underlined word “them” in paragraph 3 refer to?
A．The author’s friends. B．The author’s parents.
C．The safety problems. D．The training wheels.
D 解析：代詞指代題。根據語境及畫線詞所在句的前半部分“With the pressure of everyone seeing my training wheels”可知，作者迫于害怕別人看見自己的自行車穩定輪的壓力才決心去掉它們，故畫線詞指的就是“穩定輪”，故選D項。
7．What happened when the author finally rode without the training wheels?
A．She felt extremely embarrassed.
B．Everything turned out to be easy.
C．She ended up falling down.
D．Her sisters followed her example.
B 解析：推理判斷題。根據倒數第二段最后一句“It was crazy to think how quickly I learned something that took so long for me to even try！”可知，長時間不敢嘗試的東西，作者竟學得很快，由此對于作者來說騎沒有穩定輪的自行車后，事情變得容易了，故選B項。
8．What does the author think is necessary for her to achieve a goal?
B 解析：推理判斷題。根據最后一段最后一句“I realized that if I set my mind on doing something, I could achieve it.”可知，作者意識到如果自己下定決心做一件事的話，自己就會做到。由此可推知，作者認為對于她來說實現一個目標的關鍵在于決心，故選B項。
[長難句分析] When I was a kid, I was the girl who kept the training wheels on my bike as long as possible.(第一段第一句)
分析：本句是一個主從復合句。I was the girl為句子的主干；句中When引導時間狀語從句；who引導定語從句修飾the girl。
One form of social prejudice against older people is the belief that they cannot understand or use modern technology. Activities like playing computer games and going on the Net are only for the youngsters. Isn’t it unfair that older people enjoying a computer game should be frowned upon by their children and grandchildren?
Nowadays older people have more control over their lives and they play a full part in society. Moreover, better health care has left more people in their sixties and seventies feeling fit and active after retirement. Mental activity, as well as physical exercise, can contribute to better health. Playing computer games is a very effective way of exercising the brain.
When personal computers were first introduced, most older people didn’t believe they would ever familiarize themselves with it. Now computers have been around for a few generations and retired people have gradually become more relaxed about using them for fun. Gamers over 65 prefer playing puzzle games and card games. Kate Stevens, aged 72, says, “I find it very relaxing. It’s not very demanding, but you still need to concentrate.”
Another development that has favored “grey gamers” is a change in the type of videogames available on the market. There’s a greater variety of games to choose from, including more intellectual and complex strategy and simulation(模擬) games. Internet Chess and Train Simulator are among the most popular of these. Train Simulator is based on real-world activities. Players can choose from a variety of challengers, such as keeping to a strict-timetable and using helper engines during a winter storm.
Some people argue that “grey gamers” simply don’t have the skills required for computer games, and that teenagers are better. This_couldn’t_be_further_from_the_truth. Most computer games require the kind of analytical thinking that improves with practice, which means that the “grey gamers” may well be far better than gamers half a century younger than them. In games where speed is the main consideration, older people would be at a disadvantage because they may have slower reaction time. On the other hand, “grey gamers” have a preference for slower paced, mind challenging games.
9．What is the purpose of paragraph 2?
A．To show the best way to exercise the brain.
B．To stress the importance of good health.
C．To explain why grey gamers exist.
D．To teach how to play videogames.
10．What was older people’s attitude towards personal computers at first?
A 解析：觀點態度題。根據第三段第一句“When personal computers were first introduced, most older people didn’t believe they would ever familiarize themselves with it.”可知，老年人起初對電腦持懷疑態度。故A項正確。
11．Which method does the author use to develop paragraph 4?
A．Offering analyses. B．Giving examples.
C．Making comparisons. D．Providing details.
B 解析：寫作手法題。通讀第四段可知，第四段首句講另一個有利于老齡玩家的發展是在市場上可找到的電子游戲的類型的改變，然后通過舉例介紹了Internet Chess和Train Simulator這樣的游戲。所以作者采用了舉例說明的方法。故B項正確。
12．What does the author mean by saying “This couldn’t be further from the truth.” in paragraph 5?
A．Mind challenging games are not suitable for older people.
B．Children should improve their skills with practice.
C．Playing computer games requires analytical thinking.
D．Older people can perform well in some computer games.
[長難句分析] Playing computer games is a very effective way of exercising the brain.(第二段最后一句)
分析：Playing computer games為動名詞短語作主語，謂語動詞用單數形式。