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2020屆高考英語二輪復習教師用書:第一板塊專題三第二講代詞和介詞
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2020屆高考英語二輪復習教師用書:第一板塊專題三第二講代詞和介詞

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第二講 代詞和介詞

語法項目()

代詞        

[考綱解讀·定方向]

    近幾年高考對代詞的考查主要集中在代詞的基本用法上,因此這類試題一般較為簡單。語法填空側重對替代詞及it用法的考查;而短文改錯對代詞的考查主要集中在不定代詞、反身代詞、形容詞性物主代詞和代詞的格等的用法上。

考生在解題時要根據語境、句意判斷人稱和數;應仔細閱讀上下文,根據代詞具體指代的對象和句中充當的成分,確定代詞的格。未來高考對代詞的考查將繼續側重代詞的基本用法,并會加強語境的真實性和復雜性。

     如何確定填代詞

[思考趨向]

1.當句中缺少主語或賓語時,一般要填代詞,主要包括人稱代詞、替代詞、不定代詞以及it

2.當所給提示詞為代詞時,人稱代詞需考慮變為賓格、變為物主代詞、變為反身代詞以及it變為its等。

[典例感悟]

[典例1](2017·浙江卷6)She thought I had hurt ____________ (I)says Pahlsson.

解析:myself [根據句意可知,此處表示她以為我傷到我自己了,應用I的反身代詞,故填myself]

[典例2](2015·全國卷)A few hours beforeI'd been at home in Hong Kongwith ____________ (it) choking smog.

解析:its [空后為名詞詞組choking smog,設空處作其定語,故應填形容詞性物主代詞its。句意為:幾個小時前我還在香港的家中,呼吸著那里令人窒息的煙霧。]

[典例3](遼寧卷)Raise your leg and let ____________ stay in the air for seconds.

解析:it [根據語境可知let的賓語為前文提及的your leg,故用it替代,以避免重復。句意為:抬起你的一條腿并讓它懸空幾秒鐘。]

[典例4](2019·河南洛陽第一次統考)As soon as he opens ____________ (he) mouth and sings in Chinesethe Chinese are very surprised and they feel proud of himsaid his music teacher.

解析:his [考查代詞。根據語境mouth和主語he可知,此處應用形容詞性物主代詞his修飾名詞mouth,在句中作定語。]

     代詞的解題技法

     根據所作成分確定代詞

[實例體驗]

1(2019·濟南實驗中學期末)A friend of ____________ (I) complained all the way while she was walking towards me.

解析:mine [空處作介詞of的賓語,故用名詞性物主代詞,表示我的一個朋友]

2(2020·黃岡一模)Churchill suffered a severe hurt.But he amused ____________ (he)writing that he couldn't understand why he was not broken like an eggshell.

解析:himself [動詞amused后的賓語與該句主語所指的是同一個人,故用反身代詞。]

3(2019·福州市期末)At the end of the Qing Dynastyafter closed China came under the influence from abroadmany old hutongs lost ____________ (they) former neat arrangement.

解析:their [考查代詞。根據空后的名詞短語former neat arrangement可知,空處修飾該名詞短語,故用形容詞性物主代詞。]

4(2020·濟南市模擬)I found a restaurant that sold dishes from Xi'an when I explored the area around ____________ (I) office one day.

解析:my [考查代詞。修飾名詞office應用形容詞性物主代詞my]

5(2019·合肥市質檢二)It takes him and his partner only 15 seconds to form and shape itbut they've devoted ____________ (they) to perfecting the skills for decades.

解析:themselves [考查代詞。固定搭配devote oneself to sth./doing sth.意為某人致力于做某事,故用反身代詞themselves]

6(2020·福建調研)Yet publishers and bookstores report that more and more people throughout the United States are joining ____________(they)

解析:them [考查代詞。join表示成為……的一員,加入,是及物動詞,后面應跟賓語,故填they的賓格形式them]

[重點強化]

人稱代詞、物主代詞、反身代詞的使用規則:

人稱代詞主格

Iyouhesheitweyouthey

人稱代詞賓格

meyouhimheritusyouthem

形容詞性物主代詞

myyourhisheritsouryourtheir

名詞性物主代詞

mineyourshishersitsoursyourstheirs

反身代詞

myselfyourselfhimselfherselfitselfourselvesyourselvesthemselves

     根據所指對象確定代詞

[實例體驗]

1(2017·全國卷)Howeverthe railway quickly proved to be a great success and within six monthsmore than 25,000 people were using ____________ every day.

解析:it [考查代詞。use是及物動詞,其后接賓語,此處很明顯缺少代詞。分析句意可知,此處用it指代上文提到的the railway]

2(浙江卷)In many ways the education system in the US. is not very different from ____________ in the UK.

解析:that [考查代詞。句意:在很多方面,美國的教育體制和英國的教育體制沒有太大的差異。此處指代同類事物the education system,但并不是同一事物(名稱相同,但內容不同),故填代詞that]

3(2020·皖南名校聯考)Understanding the cultural habits of another nationespecially ____________ containing as many different subcultures as the United Statesis a complex task.

解析:one [這里整個句子的主語是Understanding the cultural habits of another nation,空處是nation的同位語,表示前面已經出現過的同種類的可數名詞,且為泛指,故填one]

4(2020·鄭州一中質檢)His children are well-behavedwhile ____________ of his sister are rude.

解析:those [空后有介詞短語修飾,表示特指。特指同名異物的復數可數名詞the children,應用those]

5(2020·濰坊一模)I saw a beautiful fish in the market the other day.I'm considering buying some orange and blue ____________tomorrow.

解析:ones [泛指前文提到的fish,且由some可知表示復數含義,故用ones表示。]

[重點強化]

替代詞:thatthoseoneonesit

that/those

可以指代前面出現過的不可數名詞或單數可數名詞,指代單數可數名詞相當于the one。其復數形式為those,相當于the ones

one/ones

指代前面出現過的那類事物中的一個,其復數形式為ones

it

特指前面提到過的同一個人或者物

     根據語境確定不定代詞

[實例體驗]

1(重慶卷)The meeting will be held in Septemberbut ____________ knows the date for sure.

解析:nobody [句意:會議將在9月份召開,但是沒有人知道確切日期。根據題干中的but可知此處應該用表示否定意義的nobody]

2(陜西卷)To warm himselfthe sailor sat in front of the fire rubbing one bare foot against the ____________.

解析:other [句意:為了使自己暖和,那個水手坐在爐火前面赤著腳互相摩擦。the other 兩者中的另一個。]

3(四川卷)Niki is always full of ideasbut ____________ is useful to my knowledge.

解析:none [句意:Niki 總是會有很多想法。但是就我所知沒有一個想法是有用的。本題考查代詞。none(三者或三者以上)都不,都沒。]

4(安徽卷)You can ask anyone for help.____________ here is willing to lend you a hand.

解析:Everyone/Everybody [句意:你可以找任何人幫忙。這里的每一個人都愿意幫助你。根據上下文邏輯可知此處表示這里的每個人,故答案EveryoneEverybody。由于系動詞為is,故all(所有人)不符合。]

5(四川卷)She'd lived in London and Manchesterbut she liked ____________ and moved to Cambridge.

解析:neither [句意:她在倫敦和曼徹斯特居住過,但是她不喜歡這兩座城市,然后搬到劍橋了。由表示轉折的連詞but可知該空應該表示否定意思且指代London and Manchester,故答案neither]

[重點強化]

1bothalleitheranyneithernone的使用規則

 

任何一個

都不(全部否定)

部分否定

兩者

both

either

neither

notboth

三者或三者以上

all

any

none

notall

2.other(s)the other(s)another的使用規則

the

other

other

the other可單獨使用,特指兩個人或物中的另一個,也可修飾名詞,表示另外的……”other不能單獨使用,只能修飾名詞,表示泛指意義

another

可單獨使用,也可修飾名詞,泛指三者或三者以上的人或物中的另一個,代替或修飾單數可數名詞。另外another后可接基數詞/few+復數名詞形式,表示另外的……(多少)

others

the

others

others單獨使用,表示泛指意義,意為其他的人或事物,常與some一起出現;特指其他的全部人或事物時用the others

3.nobody/no onenothingnone的使用規則

 

指代

用來回答

相當于

是否加of短語

nobody

/no one

who

not anyone

not anybody

nothing

what

not anything

none

人或物

how many how much

not a/an/any+名詞或no+名詞

 

    it的用法

[實例體驗]

1(2017·天津卷)____________was when I got back to my apartment that I first came across my new neighbors.

解析:It [句意:就在我返回我的公寓的時候,我第一次見到我的新鄰居。本題考查強調句型的結構,即:It is/was+被強調成分+that...,故填It]

2(2016·全國卷)On my recent visitI held a lively three-month-old twin that had been rejected by ____________ (it) mother.

解析:its [考查代詞。mother是名詞,故此處填it的形容詞性物主代詞its]

3(全國卷)—Who's that at the door?

—____________ is the milkman.

解析:It [句意:——門口的那個人是誰?——是送牛奶的人。考查代詞用法。it可用于明確身份,指某人。]

4(山東卷)Susan made ____________ clear to me that she wished to make a new life for herself.

解析:it [句意:蘇珊清楚地向我表明,她希望自己開始一種新生活。句中that she wished to make...是真正的賓語,空格處應為形式賓語,故用it]

5(陜西卷)I'd appreciate ____________ if you could let me know in advance whether or not you will come.

解析:it [句意:假如你提前讓我知道你是否會來,我將不勝感激。考查代詞。I'd appreciate it if...屬于固定句式,表示假如……我將不勝感激]

[重點強化]

替代詞it的用法

指代上文提到的某樣東西

用以代替指示代詞thisthat

指不知性別的嬰兒(baby)或身份不明確的人(由于某種原因而不知道對方是誰)

指時間、距離、價值、天氣、氣候或溫度

it常用來代替不定式、動名詞短語或名詞性從句作形式主語或形式賓語而將真正的主語或賓語后置

構成強調句型

表示喜歡,恨等心理方面的動詞后面跟從句時,要先接it,再接從句,這類動詞有likelovehatedislikeappreciate等。

it常用于一些固定搭配中,如it is no wonder that難怪……”make it獲得成功;及時趕到when it comes to...當說到……”等。

 

前后邏輯不一致

解題

攻略

代詞前后要一致

(1)看到代詞,思考它與指代內容是否一致;

(2)看到代詞,思考它的數、所有格是否正確;

(3)看到不定代詞,思考它的含義、特點、作用及與其他相近不定代詞的區別;

(4)易受漢語影響,各類代詞的誤加與漏用。

1

(2017·全國卷)Mr.and Mrs.Zhang all work in our school.

[分析] 主語只有兩個人,應用both作同位語或刪掉all。all指三者或三者以上,故all改為both或去掉all。

2

(2016·全國卷)If we go on a trip abroadwe can broaden your view and gain knowledge we cannot get from books.

[分析] 此處應該使用our與主語we在人稱上保持一致。故your改為our。

3

(2016·全國卷)At firstI thought I knew everything and could make decisions by yourself.

[分析] 代詞指代關系不一致,根據語境,反身代詞應該與I一致,故yourself改為myself。

4

(2020·合肥第一次質量檢測)But when I saw many people enjoying myself in the watermy fear was reducing.

[分析] 考查反身代詞。此處指代many people,故用themselves。enjoy oneself為固定搭配,意為玩得高興。故myself改為themselves。

 

句子成分分辨不清

解題

攻略

修飾名詞常用形容詞性物主代詞;單獨使用常用名詞性物主代詞;賓語常用代詞的賓格;注意反身代詞。

1

(2018·全國卷)Some of us were confident and eager to take part in the class activityothers were nervous and anxiousI had done myself homeworkbut I was shy.

[分析] 詞法錯誤。do one's/the homework為固定搭配,意為做家庭作業,故用形容詞性物主代詞或限定詞作定語。故myself改為my/the。

2

(全國卷)He had a deep voicewhich set himself apart from others in our small townand he was strong and powerful.

[分析] 此處意為:他有深沉的聲音,這使他與他人區分開來。set sb.apart from sb.,set后跟賓語,故應該用賓格形式。故himself改為him。

3

(2019·長沙名校第二階段診斷)When kids are confused about their problems or difficultiesparents' active involvement in our growth can make a great difference.

[分析] 考查代詞。此處表示父母積極參與他們(孩子們)的成長過程有很大作用,故要用their(代替kids')作定語,以使語意更加明確。故our改為their。

4

(2019·石家莊檢測二)I just kept feeling sorry for me.Howeverafter a few daysI decided not to let one single loss keep me from doing what I love.

[分析] 考查代詞。句子的主語是I,自己感到難過,故要用反身代詞作賓語。故for后的me改為myself。

 

幾組代詞的區別

解題

攻略

many代替可數名詞,much代替不可數名詞;表示兩者中的另一個the other,而表示(三者以上)另外的一個anotherall表示三者或三者以上both表示兩者

1

(2018·全國卷)The first time I went therethey were living in a small house with dogsducksand another animals.

[分析] 此處表示有狗、鴨子,還有其他的動物,故another改為other。

2

(2016·全國卷)It does not cost manyyet we can still learn a lot.

[分析] 此處應用代詞much指代much money, 作動詞cost的賓語;many通常指代可數名詞復數。故many改為much。

 

代詞的缺失與多余

解題

攻略

分析句子成分,確定代詞的增加或刪除

1

(全國卷)Five minutes laterTony saw parents.

[分析] 考查代詞。根據句意:五分鐘之后,托尼看見了他的父母,可知缺少parents的修飾成分,故parents前加his。

2

(2020·衡陽質檢)I find very convenient to go anywhere with a bike.

[分析] 此題考查固定句式。find+it +adj.+to do  為固定結構,it作形式賓語。故find后加it。

3

(2020·九江聯考)About two years agoI worked hard and entered a local key schoolwhich my parents were proud of it.

[分析] which引導定語從句,在從句中作be proud of的賓語,故去掉it。

 

語法項目()

介詞        

[考綱解讀·定方向]

高考對介詞的考查主要集中在介詞的基本用法及介詞與其他詞構成的固定短語的用法上。語法填空題對介詞的考查形式為純空格,即沒有提示詞,這對考生正確理解句意提出了較高的要求。短文改錯題對介詞的考查主要涉及介詞的多余、缺失或誤用,其中固定搭配中介詞的誤用是考查的重點。因此,考生應在掌握介詞基本用法的同時,注意總結和積累其與名詞、形容詞、動詞等搭配構成的短語的意思和用法。

     如何確定介詞

[思考趨向]

1.若空格后是名詞、代詞或動名詞,且它們在句中不是作主語、表語或動詞的賓語時,那么空格處一般是填介詞。

2.看空格前的動詞或形容詞,若空格處能與之構成固定搭配,且空格后的成分又作賓語,那么空格處一般填介詞。

[典例感悟]

[典例1](2018·全國卷)I was searching ____________ these three western lowland gorillas I'd been observing.No one had seen them for hoursand my colleagues and I were worried.

解析:for [考查介詞之固定搭配。search for尋找,為固定搭配。]

[典例2](2017·全國卷)After school she plans to take a year off to model full-time before going to university to get a degree ____________ engineering or architecture.

解析:in [考查介詞。degree 與介詞in搭配,表示在某方面的學位。故填in]

[典例3](2016·全國卷)Most of us are more focused ____________ our tasks in the morning than we are later in the day.

解析:on [考查介詞。be focused on注意力集中于……,為固定搭配。]

 

   介詞的解題技法

 掌握介詞的基本意義,輕松應考

[實例體驗]

1(2018·北京卷)—Good morningMr.Lee's office.

—Good morning.I'd like to make an appointment ____________ next Wednesday afternoon.

解析:for [句意:——早上好,這里是Lee先生的辦公室。——早上好,我想預約下周三下午的見面。本題考查介詞的基本用法。appointment for...在此處表示“……的預約]

2(2017·全國卷)This trendwhich was started by the medical community(醫學界)____________ a method of fighting heart diseasehas had some unintended side effects such as overweight and heart disease—the very thing the medical community was trying to fight.

解析:as [此處表示作為一種與心臟病作斗爭的方法,故填as作為]

3(2017·北京卷)Many people who live along the coast make a living ____________ fishing industry.

解析:in [句意:很多居住在沿海的人都以捕魚業謀生。本題考查介詞。in表示從事或影響某種工作,符合語境。]

4(2017·天津卷)When you drive through the Redwood Forests in Californiayou will be ____________ trees that are over 1,000 years old.

解析:among [句意:當你開車穿越加利福尼亞州的紅杉林時,你會置身于壽命超過一千年的樹木之中。設空處應該用介詞表示在三者或三者以上……之中,故用among]

5(2016·全國卷)Chopsticks are not used everywhere in Asia.In Indiafor examplemost people traditionally eat ____________ their hands.

解析:with [with(工具)……,符合句意。]

6(2016·浙江卷)The study suggests that the cultures we grow up ____________ influence the basic processes by which we see the world around us.

解析:in [句意:這項研究表明我們成長的文化影響我們看待周圍世界的基本環節。本句采用定語從句的形式考查介詞。we grow up ____________為定語從句,先行詞為 the cultures,將先行詞代入定語從句后為:We grow up ____________ the cultures.故設空處填介詞in]

7(重慶卷)Last year was the warmest year on recordwith global temperature 0.68 ____________ the average.

解析:above [句意:去年是有記錄以來最溫暖的一年,全球氣溫超過了平均氣溫0.68攝氏度。根據語境可知此處表示……之上,高于,所以要用介詞above]

8(安徽卷)They believe that there are transport developments ____________ the corner that will bring a lot of changes for the better.

解析:around [句意:他們相信交通的發展就要到來了,這將會帶來很多更好的變化。around the corner就要到來。]

9(福建卷)A common memory they all have ____________ their schooldays is the school uniform.

解析:of [句意:他們對于他們學生時代的共同記憶是校服。本句包含一個定語從句they all have ____________their schooldays,將先行詞memory代入定語從句后為:They all have a common memory ____________ their schooldays.由此可見設空處填 of]

10(江西卷)It is unbelievable that Mr.Lucas leads a simple life ____________ his great wealth.

解析:despite [句意:令人難以置信的是,盡管很富有,Lucas先生過著簡樸的生活。despite盡管。]

[重點強化]

一、幾組常見介詞的用法辨析

1表示時間的atonin

at

表示某個時間點、時刻等

on

表示在具體的日子或具體的某一天的上午、下午、晚上等

in

表示在某段較長的時間內(如世紀、年代、月份等)或泛指上午、下午、晚上等

2.表示時間的inafter

in

表示……時間之內/之后,所在的句中必須表示將來

after

表示……時間之后,通常after+時間段與過去時連用,after+時間點與將來時連用

3.表示方位的throughacrossover

 

意義

短語

through

表示……的內部穿過

through the forest從森林穿過

across

表示……表面穿過

across the desert穿過沙漠

over

表示……的上面越過

jump over the fence跨過籬笆墻

4.表示交通方式的byonin

 

意義

短語

by

后可直接跟涉及和不涉及交通工具的名詞,名詞前不加冠詞

by seaby airby carby train

on/

in

后跟交通工具時,名詞前應有冠詞,物主代詞、指示代詞等修飾語

on one's bikein one's car

5.表示……”byinwith

by

……手段,用……方法,憑借……”,后可接名詞、代詞或動名詞

in

多用于表示語言、材料的名詞前

with

多用于表示工具或身體器官的名詞前

6.表示……之外besidesexcept

besides

表示……之外還……”

except

表示……之外

二、其他常考的介詞

介詞

意義/用法

with

(表示狀態)具有,帶有(表示伴隨)隨著 (表示原因)由于,因為(表示關系)……一起構成with復合結構

against

(表示態度)反對(表示對比)……為背景(表示方位)倚靠著……

 

of

表示“……ofn.相當于形容詞

for

for+時間段表示長達……”

despite

盡管,雖然

without

如果沒有

beyond

超出,超越

 

介詞用法不算難,固定搭配記心間

[實例體驗]

1(2018·天津卷)Bob thought he couldn't go to the party because he had to write a reportbut he went ____________ all.

解析:after [句意:由于得寫一份報告,鮑勃原以為自己參加不了那場聚會了,但是他最后還是去參加了。本題考查介詞短語。根據句意可知填afterafter all還是,終究。]

2(2018·江蘇卷)China's soft power grows in line ____________ the increasing appreciation and understanding of China globally.

解析:with [句意:中國軟實力的增長是與全球對中國不斷增長的欣賞和理解緊密相連的。考查介詞短語。in line with為固定短語,意為:與……緊密相連。]

3(2017·天津卷)We offer an excellent education to our students.____________ returnwe expect students to work hard.

解析:In [句意:我們向我們的學生提供優質的教育,作為回報,我們希望學生能夠努力學習。考查介詞。in return 意為作為回報,作為報答]

4(2017·江蘇卷)Determining where we are in relation ____________ our surroundings remains an essential skill for our survival.

解析:to [句意:通過對比我們周圍的環境來確定我們的位置仍然是我們生存的重要技能。本題考查介詞短語。in relation to相對某事物而言,符合語境,故此處填to]

5(2016·浙江卷)That young man is honestcooperativealways there when you need his help.____________ shorthe's reliable.

解析:In [句意:那個年輕人誠實且有合作精神,當你需要他幫忙的時候,他總是在那兒。簡言之,他是值得依賴的。in short簡言之。]

6(浙江卷)These comments came in response ____________ specific questions often asked by local newsmen.

解析:to [句意:對于當地新聞記者常常問起的特定問題,這些評論正好作出了回復。in response to作為對……的回應。]

7(江蘇卷)Many of the things we now benefit from would not be around but ____________ Thomas Edison.

解析:for [句意:要不是Thomas Edison,許多現在讓我們獲益的東西都不會存在。根據句意和該句中的虛擬語氣可知答案forbut for要不是。]

8(湖北卷)This meeting room is a non-smoking area.I would like to warn you ____________advance that if you smoked here you would be fined.

解析:in [句意:這間會議室是無煙區。我想事先提醒你如果在這兒吸煙的話你會被罰款的。in advance提前,事先。]

9(福建卷)Our club is open to everyone regardless ____________ agesex or educational background.

解析:of [句意:我們的俱樂部對所有人開放,不分年齡、性別和教育背景。regardless of不管,不顧。]

10(浙江卷)Facing up to your problems instead ____________ running away from them is the best approach to working things out.

解析:of [句意:面對你的問題而不是逃避它們才是解決問題的最好辦法。instead of而不是。]

[重點強化]

再記常考的幾類固定搭配

1動詞+介詞

apply for   申請          approve of  同意

belong to  屬于                believe in  信仰

come from  來自               come across  碰見

depend on  依靠       deal with  處理

head for  前往                  hunt for  尋找

look into  調查                  lead to  導致

search for  尋找                 set about  著手

stick to  堅持   send for  派人去叫

account for   說明……的原因

concentrate on   全神貫注于

learn from   ……學習

operate on   ……動手術

meet with   偶然遇見;遭受

pay for   ……付款

prepare for   ……做準備

suffer from   ……

serve as   擔任……,充當……

refer to   查閱,參考;涉及;指的是

2動詞+副詞+介詞

break away from   脫離

catch up with   趕上

put up with   忍受

go on with   繼續

look forward to   盼望

get close to   接近

look out for   小心

look down upon   看不起

look around for   四處尋找

go back to   回去,追溯到

go in for   參加;從事;追求

think highly of   ……評價很高

get along well with   ……相處很好

3動詞+名詞+介詞

pay attention to   注意

take care of   照顧

take advantage of   利用

make use of   利用

make fun of   嘲笑

have trust in   信任

catch sight of   瞥見

get rid of   擺脫

take part in   參加

play a trick on   捉弄

take pride in   ……感到驕傲

play a part in   ……方面起作用

show an interest in   ……感興趣

have a talent/gift for   ……的天賦

have an effect on   ……有影響

keep an eye on   留意;密切注視

play a joke on   開某人的玩笑

have difficulty with   ……方面有困難

shake hands with   ……握手

4動詞+oneself介詞(bev.-ed介詞)

adapt oneself to   適應

accustom oneself to   適應

apply oneself to   致力于

addict oneself to   沉湎于

abandon oneself to   沉溺于

bury oneself in   埋頭于

busy oneself with   忙于

devote oneself to   致力于,獻身于

5be+形容詞+介詞

be good at   善于

be familiar with   熟悉

be fond of   喜歡,愛好

be proud of   ……自豪

be afraid of   害怕

be full of   充滿

be accustomed to   習慣于

be used to   習慣于

be related to   ……有關

be equal to   等于,能勝任

be rich in   富含

be late for   遲到

be fit for   適合

be similar to   ……類似

be angry with   ……生氣

be absorbed in   專心于

be curious about   ……好奇

be busy with sth.   忙于某事

be content with   ……滿意

be satisfied with   ……滿意

be popular with sb.   受某人的歡迎

be patient with sb.   對某人有耐心

be tired of(be fed up with)  ……厭倦

be tired from   ……感到疲勞

be aware of   知道,意識到

be absent from   缺席,未到場

be different from   ……不同

be interested in   ……感興趣

be surprised at   ……感到驚訝

be strict with sb.   對某人要求嚴格

be ashamed of   ……感到慚愧

6介詞+名詞

at a loss   不知所措

at peace   處于和平中

at war   在戰爭中

at work   在工作

on fire   著火

on sale   出售,打折

on the way   在途中

on account of   因為

by accident/chance   偶然

by air/plane   乘飛機

by coincidence   碰巧

by hand   用手工

by mistake   錯誤地

by the day   按天算

by nature   天生地

in cash   用現金付款

in depth   在深度上

in detail   詳細地

in height   在高度上

in length   在長度上

in English   用英語

in no time   立刻

in no way   決不

in place of   代替

in addition to   另外

in charge of   掌管……

in return   作為回報

in spite of   盡管

in exchange for   作為交換

in favor of   支持,贊成

in possession of   擁有,占有

in case of   萬一;如果;假如

in memory of   為了紀念……

in honour of   為向……表示敬意

on behalf of   代表

at the beginning of   ……的開始

at the mercy of   ……支配下;任由……擺布

on the decrease/increase   在減少/在增加

at the cost of   ……的代價

at the risk of   ……的危險

on exhibition/show    在展出

on holiday/vacation   在度假

on no account/condition   決不

 

 

介詞的錯用

解題

攻略

1.看到介詞,思考與動詞搭配是否正確;

2.看到介詞,思考與名詞搭配是否正確;

3.看到介詞,思考與形容詞搭配是否正確。

1

(2017·全國卷)It was a relief and I came to a sudden stop just in the middle on the road.

[分析] in the middle of the road 在馬路中間。故on 改為of。

2

(2016·全國卷)I showed them I was independent by wearing strange clothes.Now I am leaving home to college.

[分析] leave...for...離開某地到另外一個地方。故to改為for。

3

(2019·長沙名校第二階段診斷)It may result in the demands of modern life and some other reasons.

[分析] 考查介詞。此處應表示……導致或引起的,故要用result from,result in導致。故in改為from。

4

(2020·東北三省四市一模)I realized the experience was in great value and nothing was more exciting than communicating with people.

[分析] 考查固定搭配。be of great value為固定搭配,意為很有價值。故in改為of。

5

(2020·江西南昌調研)Under his helpwe have learned immediately how to analyze and settle problems.

[分析] with one's help為固定搭配,意為在某人的幫助下,故Under改為With。

 

介詞的多余或缺失

解題

攻略

  1. 介詞的多余:及物動詞后直接跟賓語,無需再加介詞;lastnext等后跟名詞表時間時其前無需加介詞。

2.介詞的缺失:不及物動詞后跟賓語時應加相應的介詞。

  1. 3.考生要特別注意固定搭配中介詞的有無情況。

1

(2017·全國卷)When I look at this picture of myselfI realize of how fast time flies.

[分析] realize是及物動詞,其后直接跟賓語,of多余。故去掉第二個of。

2

(2016·全國卷)My uncle says that he never dreams becoming rich in a short period of time.

[分析] dream of doing sth.夢想做某事,為固定搭配。故dream后加of。

3

(2020·江西五校第一次聯考)I'm very glad to receive your e-mail asking for information about the host family we have arranged you to stay with.

[分析] 考查固定短語,arrange for sb.to do sth.意為安排某人做某事,為固定搭配。故you 前加for。

4

(2019·河北五個一名校聯盟第二次考試)A big storm destroyed two villages in South Africa on last Fridaycausing 4 deaths.

[分析] 考查介詞。Friday前有last修飾,前面不用介詞。故去掉on。

5

(2020·湖南長郡中學模擬)One day when I was on my way to home from schoolI found a building on fire.Immediately I called the firefighters.

[分析] 考查固定搭配。on one's way home意為在某人回家的路上。故去掉to。

6

(2020·安徽名校聯考)In the endI managed to reach on the top of the mountain.

[分析] 考查介詞。句意:最后,我成功到達了山頂。reach為及物動詞,后面直接接地方,不接介詞。故去掉reach后的on。

 

[小題夯基練]

.單句語法填空

1(天津·改編)The quality of education in this small school is better than ____________ in some larger schools.

解析:that [that指代可數名詞單數或不可數名詞,空處指代的quality為抽象不可數名詞,故用that]

2(北京·改編)The park was full of peopleenjoying ____________ in the sunshine.

解析:themselves [根據句意可知是公園里的人正在享受陽光,故用反身代詞themselves]

3(全國卷·改編)Sarah made ____________ to the airport just in time to catch her plane this morning.

解析:it [make it是固定用法,本題中意為(尤指在困難的情況下)準時到達,趕上,后可搭配介詞to,再接表示地點的名詞。]

4(四川·改編)On my desk is a photo that my father took of ____________ when I was a baby.

解析:me [that my father took of ____________作定語修飾photothat 在定語從句中作took的賓語,根據短語take a photo of sb.為某人照相判斷用代詞me]

5(江西·改編)My brother would like to buy a good watch but ____________ was available from that shop.

解析:none [none意為沒有一個,可以指代人或者物,在句中作主語。]

6(湖南·改編)I knew that ____________ would ever discourage himhe would never give up wanting to be a director.

解析:nothing [nothing意為沒有任何東西/事情]

7(浙江·改編)Have you ever heard of the trees that are homes ____________ animals both on land and sea?

解析:to [ be home to sth.是固定搭配,意為“……的家園/棲息地]

8(陜西·改編)The Scottish girl ____________ blue eyes won the first prize in the Fifth Chinese Speech Contest.

解析:with [句意:在第五屆漢語演講比賽中,那位有著一雙藍色眼睛的蘇格蘭姑娘獲得了一等獎。with表示具有]

9(北京·改編)Jane is in a hurry because the train to the airport leaves ____________ half an hour.

解析:in [in+一段時間表示將來,由句意可知,火車并沒有開走,故用in]

10(安徽·改編)Before you pay a visit to a place of interestlook in your local library ____________ a book about it.

解析:for [look for意為尋找]

 

.單句改錯(每句一錯)

1(全國卷·改編)One daylittle Tony went to a shopping center with her parents.____________

解析:herhis [前文中Tony是男性,故用物主代詞his]

2(浙江·改編)Close to the school there was a beautiful park with many trees around them.____________

解析:themit [此處代詞指代前面的park,是單數,所以用it]

3(全國卷·改編)—Who's that under the tree?

—He is the milkman.____________

解析:HeIt [只有it可用于指代身份不明的人。]

4(福建·改編)In some countriespeople eat with chopstickswhile in anotherknives and forks.____________

解析:anotherothers [others與題干中的some構成some...others...結構,意為一些……,另一些……”another意為(三者或三者以上中的)另一個]

5(江西·改編)—When shall I callin the morning or afternoon?

—Any.I'll be in all day.____________

解析:AnyEither [由答語I'll be in all day可知,此處是對in the morningafternoon的肯定,故用either,意為(兩者中的)任何一個any意為(三者或三者以上中的)任何一個]

6(山東·改編)Susan made her clear to me that she wished to make a new life for herself.____________

解析:herit [it在句中作形式賓語,真正的賓語是that引導的從句,her不能作形式賓語。]

7(全國卷·改編)The more friends we havethe more we can learn for one another.____________

解析:forfrom [learn from sb.意為向某人學習,為固定短語。]

8(浙江·改編)If we could show concern to others on needthe world would be a better place to live in.____________

解析:onin [in need意為需要,為固定搭配。]

9(陜西·改編)Before waiting for about half an hourI was beginning to get impatient.____________

解析:BeforeAfter [由句意可知是等了大約半個小時之后,故介詞用after而不是before]

10(遼寧·改編)Every dayhe spends too much time with his work.____________

解析:withon [spend time on sth.為固定搭配,意為……上花費時間]

[大題提能練]

.語法填空——代詞專練(用適當的代詞填空)

My name is Li Kang.Today is my first day at Senior High school and I'm writing down my thoughts about 1.____________.

2____________ new school is very good and the classrooms are amazing.Every room has a computer with a special screenalmost as big as a cinema screen.The teacher is a very enthusiastic woman called Ms Shenwhose method of teaching is nothing like 3.____________ of the teachers at my Junior High school.4.____________ thinks that reading comprehension is importantbut 5.____________ should speak a lot in class.I don't think I will be bored in Ms Shen's class!

Today we introduced 6.____________ to each other in groups.7.____________ were embarrassed at first but everyone was very friendly and 8.____________ was really nice.Ms Shen gave 9.____________ instructions and then we worked by ourselves.Shen wants to help us improve our spelling and handwriting with spelling games and other activities.10.____________ of us like her attitude very much.

[語篇解讀]  本文的作者是一名高中新生,講述了他上高中第一天的見聞。

1解析:it [考查it的用法。空處作介詞about 的賓語,指代前面的my first day at Senior High school,故用it]

2解析:My [考查形容詞性物主代詞。從前文可知作者在談我的新學校,形容詞性物主代詞在名詞new school前作定語。故填My]

3解析:that [考查指示代詞。此處指代前文出現過的method of teaching,用that]

4解析:She [考查人稱代詞。作主語要用主格人稱代詞,指代Ms Shen,用She]

5解析:we [考查人稱代詞。作主語用主格,在課堂上多說的應當是我們學生,故填we]

6解析:ourselves [考查反身代詞。introduce oneself to sb.向某人做自我介紹。由主語we 可知,此處是我們互相介紹我們自己,故用ourselves]

7解析:Some [考查不定代詞。根據常識,第一次見面有些人會難為情。]

8解析:it [考查it的用法。此處替代前文的everyone was very friendly,用it]

9解析:us [考查人稱代詞。在及物動詞后作賓語,用賓格,指我們,用usgive sb.instructions給某人指導。]

10解析:All [考查不定代詞。從前句和常識來看,應是我們大家都非常喜歡她的這種教學態度。故用不定代詞all,注意首字母大寫。]

.短文改錯

(2019·佛山二模)Last weekmy friends and me went to watch Jay Chou's performance in Guangzhou.There are crowds of cheerful fans theremany of who came from other cities.Jay began his performance with one of his most famous song.We all cheered and shouted out his namebut some even cried with joy.When Jay began to sing the seventh song it called Sunny Dayit started to rain.Thereforethe concert was not interrupted and we got even more exciting in the rain.At lastJay finished the concert with a speechthank his fans for always supporting him.What memorable experience!

答案:

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